Improving Teacher Competence

Posted by Lana on Wednesday, June 17, 2009

the paper discusses how this particular increase four competencies of teachers, namely (1) Competency Pedagogik, (2) Personality Competence, (3) and Social Competence (4) Professional Competence.

1. Competency Pedagogik
Based on the Law on Teachers and Lecturers, pedagogik competence is the ability of learning which include:
a.memahami students;
b.merancang and implement learning;
c.mengevaluasi study results;
d.mengembangkan themselves professionally.
The pedagogik competence is the ability of teachers and lecturers to manage the learning process of students. A teacher and lecturer who has had minimal competency pedagogik the particular field of study, science education, both learning methods, and approaches of learning. This ability Pedagogik obtained through the education process, when studied in the FKIP / IKIP (before becoming a university) that can be used as the LPTK (Institute of Labor Education Education).
So LPTK (Institute of Labor Education Education) has an important role in the ability of prospective teachers to develop competencies for pedagogik. This is because, from where prospective teachers are introduced to the world of teaching. LPTK not only teach students to master a particular field, but also teaches about the basics of psychology that is useful for students in schools in accordance with tahapannya. In addition LPTK teaches how to design a syllabus, teaching materials and create a good classroom atmosphere. For educators, the vanguard of progress in education in Indonesia. In the hands of their curriculum is described in the syllabus, teaching materials, and learning in the classroom dynamic and mencerahkan. Quality of the teachers, a curriculum change is not an issue, because the curriculum only for equipment, how the most important tool is used. In fact, according to Clandinin and Conelly teacher is basically the creator of the curriculum.
To support the efforts of teachers print quality, innovative and creative, we need to consider the paradigm of critical pedagogy dilontarkan by Colin Lankshear, Michael Peters and Michele Knobel. In Conternarratives, the work of Henry Giroux et al., They think that there are six characteristics critical pedagogy. First, education is in essence a form of social and cultural criticism. One of the goals of education is a social reconstruction. Education institutions is the media who are expected to scrutinize and improve the various issues that arise in society caused by economic factors, political, and cultural. Therefore, various problems that developed in the empirical reality is brought to the classroom for dikritisi dicarikan and exit through the process of codification context. Discussion of the results is offered and then implemented as an alternative solution. This process will not run the most if there is no critical awareness of educational practitioners, especially teachers and students.
Second, the very existence of someone associated with the wider community both in the scope of family, community, or educational institutions. That is, someone's awareness is in essence a reflection of the collective that was formed through family, community and school. For, she learned from people in surrounding areas. In the context of critical pedagogy, not berkualitasnya teacher education and human resources due to structural or cultural factors. Therefore, the education process is an effort to 'bring' about the condition of someone who he was.
Third, social facts can never be separated with ranah value. This means that the various activities that occur in reality-is an empirical manifestation or reflection of the value of the perpetrator. Therefore, according to this paradigm, there is a close relationship between the value of action, between signifier with the signified. Relationships are not always permanent (fixed) and often dimediasi by the circle of production, consumption, and social relations. Therefore, the critical reading of a social fact must always be made. For example, the theme of the book can be taught is a positive for the government to improve the intellect of the people. But for parents, teaching is a book every year because of the burden of change and expensive.
Fourth, language is central to the formation subyektifitas. In this perspective the interests, needs, and trends in a person or institution appear through the media language. On the other hand, the language is in essence a form of stress and thought that someone agreed by the community. Words that appear by a community dimaknai are not necessarily exactly the same by the other. Therefore, it is often found in people who have problems caused by the differences appear in language and culture.
Fifth, the emergence of differences in status in the community both economically and socially due to the privilese is not fair by the other party, such as the bureaucrats, politicians, and owners of capital, because of certain interests. The problem is, many community members who consider the differences that occur once only, natural, and certainly. In a critical perspective, the emergence of the difference is caused by the unfair treatment from the authorities. For that, people need to disadarkan about this condition. This does not mean that all members of society must be the same, but when I get the wealth, social status, or position is done in a reasonable and procedural, of course it will be accepted.
Finally, in the emergence of a critical perspective on public issues should be associated with other aspects. Consider the problems of only one aspect as well as to simplify the problem. The education process must be able to see the problems that arise in the community from many perspectives. For example, the number of teachers who "moonlight" outside the profession as a teacher can not be seen from the aspect of professionalism and work ethics of teachers only, but should be related to government policy issues that have not yet appreciate the teaching profession, or the low appreciation of the profession this community.
Although the critical discourse of education is quite long, but the fact is that many educational institutions to print staff's "not familiar" with this case because it is considered left-kirian. However, while many still find that the power of educators who have not been professional, creative and less critical because the more stuck on the issue tends to be mechanical and routine, and wait for commands from superiors with the pattern "the operational and technical guidelines", may be one of the causes is the case menggodok they (LPTK) is also not far from the output (teacher). Starting from this fact, there is a positive side that can be developed from the paradigm when the critical pedagogy that educators establish LPTK generated also critical.
Of the four competencies that must be owned by a teacher, as mandated by law, the pedagogical, personality, social and professional, then consider LPTK paradigm on the pedagogical competence in the organization so that this does not just provide material goods but poor technical nuances philosophical.
If prospective teachers are taught to think critically, would accept the changes and criticism, then when he was teaching the teacher will apply the same in his life. Creating a critical young generation, innovative and creative is the task of a teacher. Bring issues of social, political, economic and culture in the process of learning, is a provision for them to solve problems they will face in the future. But it will not happen without a good learning process, learning process is the determination of targets, problem solving, team work, critical analysis, debate, discussion, and so forth. The process of learning is the ability pedagogig a teacher, requires teachers to recognize children didiknya, what the advantages and disadvantages didiknya children. Designing learning environment to become more alive, with a critical spirit and pesreta students to find solutions, and provide the new information each day according to time of development, not to make the class quiet room containing the recorded lessons based on children's books in print, without question or activities that make children think creatively. So it is not only the learning but notice, and that signifies competence pedagogig teachers are common. This is why pedagogig critical to consider to improve the competency of teachers.
In addition pedagogig competence can also be developed when the prospective teachers have become teachers, for example, upgrading to, workshops, further education, education in the office, and other academic activities.
So how to improve the competency pedagogig is:
 teacher candidates are taught to think critically so that it would accept the changes and criticism.
 Teachers should improve the knowledge in the areas of political, social, economic and culture in the process of learning.
 Each prospective teacher must follow the process of education in the LPTK produce quality teachers.
 Competency pedagogig teachers can be developed through upgrading, workshops, further education, education in the office, and other academic activities.
2. Competency Personality
Teachers often seen as a figure who has the personality ideal. Therefore, the time teachers are often seen as role models or model (which should be imitated and diteladani). As a teacher must have a model of competence related to the development of the personality (personal competencies), including:
(1) associated with the ability to experience the teachings of religion in accordance with the religious dianutnya;
(2) the ability to honor and respect among religious believers;
(3) the ability to behave in accordance with the norms, rules, and the value system in society;
(4) the nature of-merit as a teacher for example, decorum and order and karma;
(5) be democratic and open to criticism and renewal.
Teachers can not say, "You must like this, not so!" Or, "Do not be like this, this is wrong!", If he can not mempratekkannya in real life. Akan strange happens when the children told students not smoking, but smoking itself is a teacher in the school environment. More and more strange, because it can not remove the cigarette, it does not prohibit students with the reason he does not understand because it is prohibited without the effort to become role models for students. In other words, try to improve every day, learning to understand yourself first is an effective way of creating restriction-ban, but teachers are not compliance for himself.
Appearance teachers, speech and speech is an example of moral teacher participants didiknya. If he can not keep sikapnya although he can teach very well, then the ideals of the nation to print the next generation of advanced, intelligent and has good morals that will not be fulfilled.
A teacher's morality is the key in improving the quality of self-competence and that must be fulfilled in order to improve the quality of education. An assumption that is supported by a research has stated that there were a significant correlation between the behavior of the faculty perceptions of student performance (Kozma, Belle, and Williams, 1978, in Jacob, 2002, h.2). So, basically subject students achievement is influenced by the competency pengajarnya.
Still dealing with the personality of competence, teachers' attitudes towards the subjects they teach are also influential, attitude towards students. Show enthusiasm (Great Spirit) to the subjects taught, that teacher is not enthusiastic for the subjects they teach that it was difficult to expect students to receive lessons are keyed. To ensure there is enthusiasm on the students is to plan the subjects may be, the way that may cause interest on the subjects the students are.
Thus, the increase competency personality can be done with the road:
 A teacher must increase their knowledge about the norms, rules of the system in society.
 A teacher should be an example that shows the example to the students.
 Show enthusiasm attitude towards what is taught! If teachers themselves do not keyed to the subjects that he teach, what may he flushed students can expect to receive what he teach?
3. Social Competence
Competence is related to the ability of teachers as members of the community and as social beings, including:
(1) the ability to interact and communicate with a colleague to improve the professional ability;
(2) the ability to recognize and understand the functions of each institution and the social;
(3) the ability to work together both individually and in groups.
Social competence, is not needed because teachers diisolasi in the classroom. Ability to bersosial can not be separated from the personality of competence, how to behave to sejawat colleagues, students and community children are very dependent on the personality of teachers themselves.
If the personality of teachers are good, the social competence akan proportionate straight. Related to social competence, there is good potential teachers learn how to be parents, both of which are not problematic and problematic. Most of the teachers to call parents if a problem, without berbasa-stale error directly told the children, the teachers' complaint without a note on the time greeting thank the parents are given to discuss improvements to the child. Receive a call from the school have made anxious parents, so it is very wise not to burden them with the carpet and hold menjelek-jelekkan students. Teachers such as this, indicates the personality and social ability are low.
So, in order to be able to develop social competence, teachers must:
 Teachers must know and understand the environment akan faces, before that can interact with both socializing.
 Teachers must know how to behave, and bertutur said fine, but the patient firmly, and how to better interact with other people.
 Sharing respect, mutual understanding, attitudes you want to work together, and so is the attitude that should be ditumbuhkan to be able to interact with the work environment
4. Professional Competence
Professional competence is the competence or ability related to the adjustment tasks Keguruan. Competency is a competency that is very important, because directly related to the performance shown. Therefore, the level keprofesionalan a teacher's competence can be seen as follows:
(1) the ability to master the foundations kependidikan, for example, will understand the purpose of education that must be achieved both national goals, the institutional, curricular and learning goals;
(2) understanding in the field of educational psychology, for example, understand the stages of development of the students, understand theories about learning;
(3) ability to control materials in accordance with the lessons of field studies diajarkannya;
(4) ability to apply the various methodologies and strategies for learning;
(5) ability to design and utilize the various media and sources of learning;
(6) ability to carry out evaluation of learning;
(7) ability in preparing the program; (ability in implementing the elements of support, such as school administration, and counseling and guidance;
(8) ability to conduct scientific research and thinking to improve performance.
As with other professions, teachers also are required for the professional. Every profession has a target to be achieved, for example, students are graduating with a target value and get a good job, or a doctor who has a target to strive to serve patients in order to improve their health. Similarly, a teacher, a teacher's target is to provide knowledge as their stock in the future, not only knowledge of the material but also knowledge of useful life for socializing.
To achieve the target, the need and business strategy, that is always looking for a good learning techniques, and are not fed growth stages learn each student. Learning strategies can be based on research on education, for example, the management class. In the school if there are students who repeatedly break duduknya, teachers will continue to warn, so that students are aware of the regulations. But based on research Becker, Thomas, Koser (1989), if teachers ignore students who leave the seat, and then praised the students who remain seated, on average students who leave the seat will be reduced. Therefore, always read the results of research on education, both learning about psychology and about how to teach, it is important to improve the ability of these teachers.
In addition it is important for teachers to continue deep into the material that he teach lessons, as they learn and teach each other. Students learn what teachers teach, but teachers also learn from the questions that arise from the students. Because it is very important for teachers to continue to read and understand the development of technology.
Creative teachers who are teachers who can use material that is around for the lesson materials, and mengaplikasikannya with the methodology of learning, and create a fun learning atmosphere. If it can be done, then there is no student who said the word "study" with a tone full load and lazy, because the "study" for their sense of adventure is keingintahuan, with a fun susana. If students receive a lesson of course pleased with the heart it will be more understandable and the results can be maximum. This is consistent with research that shows, the teachers set the class with both also tend to produce students who prefer to learn (grows & Good, 1975; Ebas & McDonald, 1976)
In order to perform tasks the teacher can develop a professional competence, the teacher is obliged:
 Merencakan learning, implement a quality process, and assess and evaluate learning outcomes.
 Improve and develop the academic qualifications and competence in line with the sustainable development of science, technology, and art;
 act objectively and not discriminatory on the basis of considerations of gender, religion, tribe, race, and physical condition, or family background, and socio-economic status of students in learning;
 uphold laws and regulations, law and code of ethics of teachers, and religious values and ethics, and
 Maintain and foster unity and nation.









Conclusion
Teachers are professional educators with the primary task of educating, teaching, guiding, directing, training, assess, and evaluate students on early childhood education path of formal education, primary education and secondary education.
The position of teachers as professionals aiming to implement the national education system and realize the goal of national education, the development potential of students to become people who believe and fear to God, have a certain noble, healthy, berilmu, skilled, creative, independent, and a citizens of a democratic and responsible.
Competence is a set of knowledge, skills and attitudes that must be owned, dihayati, and mastered by teachers or lecturers in implementing the tasks keprofesionalan.
The competence of teachers include:
1. Pedagogik competency is the ability to manage students' learning.
How to develop competency pedagogik is:
 teacher candidates are taught to think critically so that it would accept the changes and criticism.
 Teachers should improve the knowledge in the areas of political, social, economic and culture in the process of learning.
 Each prospective teacher must follow the process of education in the LPTK produce quality teachers.
 Competency pedagogig teachers can be developed through upgrading, workshops, further education, education in the office, and other academic activities.

2. Competence is the ability of the personality that dogged personality, have a certain noble, wise, and authoritative as well as the example of students.
Competency in order to develop the personality that can be done is:
 A teacher must increase their knowledge about the norms, rules of the system in society.
 A teacher should be an example that shows the example to the students.
 Show enthusiasm attitude towards what is taught! If teachers themselves do not keyed to the subjects that he teach, what may he flushed students can expect to receive what he teach?

3. Social competence is the ability of teachers to communicate and interact efficiently and effectively with students, sesame teachers, parents / guardians of students, and the surrounding communities.
To develop social competence, how is:
 Teachers must know and understand the environment akan faces, before that can interact with both socializing.
 Teachers must know how to behave, and bertutur said fine, but the patient firmly, and how to better interact with other people.
 Sharing respect, mutual understanding, attitudes you want to work together, and so is the attitude that should be ditumbuhkan to be able to interact with the work environment.



4. Professional competence is the ability to control the materials and lessons are widely depth.
Teachers can improve the professional competence, if:
 Merencakan learning, implement a quality process, and assess and evaluate learning outcomes.
 Improve and develop the academic qualifications and competence in line with the sustainable development of science, technology, and art;
 act objectively and not discriminatory on the basis of considerations of gender, religion, tribe, race, and physical condition, or family background, and socio-economic status of students in learning;
 uphold laws and regulations, law and code of ethics of teachers, and religious values and ethics, and
 Maintain and foster unity and nation.

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